Supervisor and Docker
Docker is a great way to componentize an app along different aspects. But I found that when I still need to start multiple programs in a single container, it is better to use supervisor instead of cron scripts.
Use supervisor if:
- You have multiple processes
- And need coordination between them
If you have a single process, use Docker to start it. If you don’t need coordination, then separate them to different containers. Also, if you only need coordination as a fixed startup order, Docker already provides that. For a database and an app, they can live inside different containers without problems. Or a monitoring script that runs independently. In those cases, don’t look at supervisor.
But if, for example, you use Apache with Let’s Encrypt, you need the webserver, the certificate issuance script, and the renewal script. And they require coordination, as they dynamically depend on each other. In this case, supervisor comes handy, and knowing how to configure it will be beneficial.
First, install it inside a Docker container:
Then provide a configuration file, like this basic one:
The important part here is the nodaemon=true, which instructs supervisor to start in the foreground instead of as a service. This lets Docker to manage its lifecycle.
By default, supervisor logs into files, but that does not play well with Docker. It is better to use the standard output streams.
Scenario #1: Log to console, redirect stderr to stdout
If you just want to see all log messages, redirect stderr to stdout, and print that:
Use this if you don’t need any special handling for the error messages.
Scenario #2: Log stdout and stderr separately
In this case, any logs, be it stdout or stderr, will be logged as-is.
Use supervisor with Apache
If you use Apache, you’ll soon find out that shutting it down with supervisor seems to have no effect. This is because in order to avoid using root for serving the content, Apache spawns child processes that supervisor has no knowledge about.
In effect, supervisor can start Apache, but can’t shut it down properly.
To make supervisor to kill the child processes too, use
Also make sure you run Apache in the foreground with
The default behavior is that supervisor starts all programs during startup. To prevent this, use
Similarly, it tries to restart programs only if they exit with an error. You might want to change it to restart every time, and you can do that with
You can also combine the above two:
It will not start the program, but will keep it running.
To control the state of programs, use
If you need an easy scheduling without any hard guarantees, you can combine autorestart and sleep:
This will run the script roughly every day, but drifts slowly. If you need something more exact, use cron.
Orchestrate complex workflows
With these simple tools, you can define more complex flows.
Example #1: Init before startup
To start a program first and run another one after that, you can combine
autostart with the
&& ... construct:
Example #2: Stop an app while another one is running
To stop an app during the time another one is running, use
This way, when app1 is running, app2 is shut down.